V4 engines were used in cars, in the early days of becoming mainstream machines. Most of the V4 engines have two crankpins that are shared by opposing cylinders and three main bearings to support the crankshaft. The main disadvantage of these V4 engines is they are wider compared to inline-4 engines and require two exhaust manifolds, two-cylinder heads, and two valvetrains which results in an increase in cost and complexity. These engines were used less when compared to flat-four engines.
Here are a few vehicles built with the V4 engines.
1. 1898 Mors
Mors was an early French car manufacturer. This vehicle had a rear-mounted 9.2L V4 side valve engine with magneto ignition and a dry sump lubrication system. This engine produced a maximum power of 60hp and the vehicle was used to race in Grand Prix motor racing till 1908.
2. 1922 Lancia Lambda
This vehicle has the first V4 engine used in production cars the Lancia V4 engine. The engine design was a narrow-angle design with an angle of 20 degrees between the banks and a single cylinder head with one overhead camshaft shared by both banks. It used aluminum for both the block and head. These V4 engines were produced until 1976 then they were replaced by flat-four engines.
3. ZAZ Zaporozhets
This is a city-type car that was manufactured by Ukraine manufacturer Zaporizhzhia Automobile Building Plant (ZAZ) from 1960 to 1994. This engine was based on the design used in the LuAZ-967 (military vehicle). It had an air-cooling system with a magnesium block and was produced in various displacements from 0.7–1.2 L.
4. M422 Mighty Mite
This is a military vehicle that used the AMC Air-cooled 108 which was a 108 cu in (1.8 L) V4 engine. This was in use from 1960 to 1963. This vehicle was developed by American Motors Corporation (AMC). They wanted this to be light in weight so that it can be carried by helicopter easily.
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5. Saab Sonett V4
This car was manufactured by Saab Automobile AB of Sweden. This vehicle used a Ford Taunus V4 engine that was produced in Germany from 1962 to 1981. This engine was a 60-degree V4 with water cooling and overhead valves. The engine produced 65 hp and the vehicle had a top speed of 99mph while taking 12.5 sec to accelerate from 0-60mph.
6. Matra 530
This sports car was built by the French engineering group Matra between the years 1967–1973. The engine used here is the same 1.7 L Taunus OHV V4 produced by Ford. Here the engine was mated to a 4-speed manual transmission. The car had a top speed of 95 mph and took 15.6 sec to accelerate from 0-60mph.
7. Ford Capri Mk1
This car has a Ford Essex V4 engine that was produced by Ford in the United Kingdom from 1965 to 1977. This was the second V4 engine produced by Ford. These vehicles were manufactured from 1969 to 1974 and had various engines including a 2.0 L Essex V4.
8. Porsche 919 Hybrid
This is an LMP1 racing car built by Porsche. This vehicle was equipped with a mid-mounted 2.0L (122 cu in) 90-degree turbocharged V4 engine. The engine produced a maximum power of 500hp. And it was fixed to a Porsche 7-speed electro-hydraulic actuated sequential gearbox with a rear-lock differential.
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